By G. Stejnar. Central State University.
As more widespread genetic information becomes available buy 100mg kamagra chewable with mastercard, she warns kamagra chewable 100 mg online, ‘it is likely to render us increasing- ly critical of those who make what we regard as being the ‘‘wrong’’ decision in relation to reproduction’. McHale is sceptical of this argument, suggesting that codes of practice stressing parental duties not to reproduce unless the oVspring meet certain criteria are really just rationing tools. The argument that it is unfair for society to bear the ‘costs’ of the couple’s penchant for reproduction, if their children are likely to be handi- capped, meets with no friendlier reception from her. Pressing on beyond these politically motivated arguments, McHale asks whether there could conceivably be any remedy in law for enforcing a ‘right not to be born’. In a previous book, Breaking the Abortion Deadlock: From Choice to Consent (1996), McDonagh sought to unite opponents and proponents of abortion behind an argument justifying abortion not in terms of the woman’s right to choose, but of her consent to further continuation of the pregnancy. Conceding fetal personhood in ar- guendo, as most pro-choice activists do not, McDonagh argued that even if the fetus were a person, its claims would not necessarily ‘trump’ the mother’s right to withhold consent to continuing the pregnancy and giving birth. Dickenson again breaks down the barriers between feminist and antifeminist arguments: ‘The problem of abortion has been deWned by pro-life activists (as we would expect), but also by pro-choice advocates (as we might not expect) on the basis of a very traditional model of motherhood, one invoking cultural and ethical depictions of women as maternal, self-sacriWcing nurturers’. That is, by stressing the way in which unwanted pregnancy forces women into the stereotype of sacriWcial victims, the model of motherhood used by pro- abortion campaigners is actually deeply conservative, and possibly counter- productive. McDonagh’s chapter, like Daniels’s, takes this section of the book out of the conWnes of the dyadic doctor–patient relationship and into the political arena. By contrast, Franc¸oise Baylis and Susan Sherwin (Chapter 18) extend the political power dimension into a very familiar and ‘ordinary’ side of the obstetrician–patient encounter – ‘non-compliance’. Baylis and Sherwin draw our attention to the way in which this apparently value-free term is used to reinforce the physician’s power and to label the patient as an object of concern rather than a partner in the clinical relationship. In some instances, however, failure to follow professional recommendations elicits pejorative judgements of non-compliance, and while these judgements are provoked by a failure to comply with speciWc advice, typically they are applied to the patient as a whole’. By alerting the conscientious practitioner to the ubiquitous presence of ethical issues, Baylis and Sherwin help to counteract the popular media assumption that the only serious questions in reproductive ethics are those about new technologies. The impact of new technologies and new diseases The questions asked by McHale about limiting the rhetoric of responsible parenting recur in a more technology-driven form in the chapter by the American philosopher and feminist theorist Rosemarie Tong (Chapter 5). Likewise, the aims of medicine may conceivably be extended from doing no harm to this particular mother and fetus to producing the best babies possible. As Tong remarks, physicians are unable to resist patient demands for genetic enhancement because there is no Introduction 7 generally agreed set of aims of medicine with which to counter such demands – ‘Medicine, it has been argued, is simply a set of techniques and tools that can be used to attain whatever ends people have; and physicians and other health care practitioners are simply technicians who exist to please their customers or clients, and to take from them whatever they can aVord to pay’. Unless doctors are content to play this passive role, it is essential that they should think through the ethical issues surrounding new technologies and the increased demands to which they give rise. They are also mixed blessings when, while provid- ing a means to desired motherhood for some, they occasion pressures on others to undergo risks they would not otherwise encounter’. Higher-order pregnancies, as a form of iatrogenic harm occasioned by misapplication of fertility technologies, are the particular focus of Mahowald’s attention. This distinction is not merely semantic Wnickiness – ‘fetal reduction’ obscures the fact that some fetuses are being aborted, and yet even a ‘pro-lifer’ might 8 D. Can selective termination ever be justiWed, or is allowing ‘targeting’ of a particular fetus on grounds of sex, for example, simply wrong whether that sex is male or female? In a series of illuminating case examples, Mahowald teases out the ethical issues around selective termination, concluding that it may sometimes be justiWed but that practitioners need to be alert to possible abuses in justice which it may raise. Traditional arguments for secrecy are beginning to give way to counter-arguments for openness, but will donors still be forthcoming if their identities can be traced? Evidence from Sweden (the Wrst country to introduce non-anonymous donation) indicates that after an initial dip in the number of donors, earlier levels of donation are regained, but with a diVerent sort of donor, with more altruistic motivations. Finally, the validity of the arguments both for and against anonymity are considered, and the implications of changes in the practice of secrecy for donor insemination are outlined. Elina Hemminki (Chapter 12), a Finnish epidemiologist and health tech- nology assessment expert, approaches antenatal screening from an evidence- based medicine viewpoint. Her contribution is particularly valuable because, as an ‘outsider’ to medical ethics, she is able to pick up inconsistencies in how the reproductive ethics literature treats diVerent interventions which actually raise many of the same questions. Whereas Tong and Mahowald primarily consider the individual woman or couple, Hemminki concentrates on popu- lations, and on the ethical questions raised by mass screening. Is it right, for example, to impose on those undergoing screening an unavoidable risk of false positives and false negatives – which will never be altogether eliminated, no matter how precise the screening process? Through the organization of screening pro- grammes and concomitant research, medicine and health care have been given the authority to deWne which diseases and characteristics qualify for these beliefs’. Directing our attention to the wider societal impact of screen- ing, outside the dyadic doctor–patient relationship, Hemminki argues that medicine has been given something of a poisoned chalice. What appeared at Wrst to be a straightforward part of the goals of medicine, the reduction of disease in populations through genetic screening, is neither straightforward nor necessarily part of the goals of medicine. Similarly, the development of stem cell technologies may appear at Wrst to be an unmitigated blessing in terms of disease reduction, but the manner in which stem cell lines are being established gives profound cause for fears about abuse and exploitation. Most commentators have concentrated on the moral status of the embryo, and those who have concluded in favour of developing stem cell banks or lines have done so on the basis that the embryo used is not harmed because it will in any case be destroyed (e.
He was an advocate of a close rela- Funds provided by donor to endow Profes- tionship between pathology and gynecology sorships in the School of Medicine kamagra chewable 100mg on-line. Funds provided by donor to endow Profes- Therapeutic Cognitive Neuroscience Pro- sorships in the School of Medicine 100mg kamagra chewable overnight delivery. Traystman Professorship in in making their donations in recognition of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medi- their respect and admiration for Dr. He completed Intensive Care Medicine was renamed to his internship and residency at the Wilmer honor Dr. Welch, the frst Dean of the Johns Hopkins Thomas and Dorothy Tung Professor in School of Medicine. Income from the principal will support the Wellcome Professorship in Clinical Phar- Tung Professor. Lawson Wilkins, the father of Pedi- family, friends, colleagues, and grateful atric Endocrinology. Wagley, a 1943 gradu- William Holland Wilmer Professorship in ate of the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Ophthalmology : Peter J. Walsh was the founder of the sub- nician in the Department of Gynecology and specialty of neuro-ophthalmology. Walsh has been the Director of Funding provided by the Department of Oph- the Department of Urology since 1974. Fund- thalmology Unit Executive Funds to support ing was provided by an anonymous donor. Herter of New York this purpose up to the time of her death in offered to the Medical Department of the December, 1937, made it possible to offer Johns Hopkins University the sum of $25,000 prior to 1938 thirteen courses of lectures by “for the formation of a memorial lectureship distinguished scientists either from this coun- designed to promote a more intimate knowl- try or abroad. Upon her death the University edge of the researches of foreign investiga- received from her estate a legacy amounting tors in the realm of medical science. According to ment fund, the income of which is to be devot- the present terms of the gift, some eminent ed to the continuation of these lectures. The selec- the departments of pharmacology, chemistry, tion of a lecturer is to be left to a committee and medicine. This lectureship was the Johns Hopkins University to endow a lec- inaugurated in the academic year 1960-61 tureship to be known as “The William Sydney with the frst Gilman Lecture being appro- Thayer and Susan Read Thayer Lectureship priately given by Dr. Gould Lectureship in Radiol- the expenses of one or more annual lectur- ogy: In 1962 friends and former associates ers on subjects “in Clinical Medicine, Pedi- of Dr. Gould was a member of the to be made by a “Committee composed of Johns Hopkins faculty from 1947 to 1955. Gould was Professor of Radiology lishment of a lectureship in the History of at the University of Colorado. Libman’s are selected from scholars distinguished desires, the lectureship was named after the in clinical radiology or related disciplines in distinguished investigator, Hideyo Noguchi. Lawson Wilkins, it year a course of lectures in memory of her has been possible to establish a distinguished deceased husband, Charles E. Dohme, a lectureship designed to commemorate his well-known pharmaceutical chemist of Balti- great contribution to pediatric endocrinology. Stanhope Bayne-Jones, a distinguished cine for the establishment of an annual Visit- alumnus of the Johns Hopkins University ing Professorship of Clinical Pharmacology School of Medicine. In view of his long interest in infectious The purpose of the lectureship is the promo- diseases, microbiology, epidemiology, and tion of a wider appreciation of the importance preventive medicine, it has been decided to of clinical pharmacology and its scientifc orient the Bayne-Jones Memorial Lecture- base. Lecturers are selected from the Lectureship was formally established in individuals who have made important contri- 1973. The lecturers are to be selected from butions in clinical or investigative surgery and scholars distinguished in clinical or investiga- the selection is made by a committee repre- tive surgery, and the selection will be made senting the Section of Surgical Sciences. The pur- $10,000 for the establishment of a lecture- pose of this visiting professorship is to foster ship in honor of Dr. The lectures the appreciation and understanding of ethi- under this endowment are given each year by cal issues in basic and clinical research and the recipients of the Paul Ehrlich Awards and patient care. The Samuel Novey Lectureship in Psy- The Alan Coopersmith Visiting Profes- chological Medicine: The family, friends sorship: The family, colleagues, and friends and colleagues of Dr. Alan Coopersmith have established a to establish a lectureship to honor his con- lectureship (or in special circumstances, a tributions as practicing physician, and as a visiting professorship) in his memory in the teacher of psychiatry and psychoanalysis. Novey was Coopersmith was a member of the Pediatric director of training at the Sheppard and House Staff (1971-1973) and a Fellow in Pedi- Enoch Pratt Hospital. He had also for many atric Hematology from 1973 until the time of years been actively engaged in teaching and his death on December 5, 1974. His concern research at the Johns Hopkins University for patients and their problems and his incisive School of Medicine.
Conclusion: According to fndings of the study cheap kamagra chewable 100 mg line, in es) order 100mg kamagra chewable with visa, rhythmic massage, eurythmy movement exercises, counselling stark contrast to other groups there is signifcant difference on the and anthroposophic nursing. Many people with chronic disease use rate of weight and peak torque for basketball players. Anthroposophic 1University of Tsukuba Hospital, Department of Rehabilitation therapies were used to stimulate salutogenetic self-healing capacities Medicine, Tsukuba, Japan, 2Ibaraki Prefectural University of and strengthen autonomy both in children and adults. Therapy, Ami, Japan, 5Kowa gishi Laboratory, Department of Studies showed that adverse reactions to anthroposophic therapies Prosthesis and Orthosis, Tsukuba, Japan, 6Ibaraki Prefectural Uni- were rare. The majority of these reactions were reported to be of versity Hospital of Health Sciences, Department of Occupational mild to moderate intensity. The results also indicated that the level Therapy, Ami, Japan, 7University of Tsukuba Hospital, Department of patient satisfaction was high. Furthermore, as he could not use the dysphagia patients of impaired mentality, comparing to the conven- existent prosthetic socket because of unhealed stumps, he started tional approach. Satisfaction Questionnaire with Gastrostomy Feeding of very little friction between the sockets and stumps. Two-sample paired t- healed and to continue rehabilitation with existent prosthesis. However, 21 patients 164 were excluded, including 19 who could begin oral feeding and two with cricopharyngeal incoordination. The delay muscle repair model was established by 168 transecting the tibial nerve motor branches to the gastrocnemius muscle. Sun1 The same volume of saline was injected in the other half as a con- The Second Affliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, trol. Introduction/Background: The memory cognition is impaired dur- ing aging, which could be improved by physical training, but the 171 mechanism has never been indicated clearly. Kuo1 intensity around the vessel in the living brain using two-photon 1Suzhou, China image. The amyloid β accumulation, microglia and astrocyte were examined using immunofuorescence staining. Results: Firstly, compared with the seden- involvement can potentially prevent the development of depression tary group, voluntary running remarkably improved the water maze later in life and improve health. Twelve community-dwelling older Secondly, voluntary running signifcantly accelerated the change of adults aged 65 years and older participated in the program. The pro- the forescent intensity around the vesselalong perivascular spaces gram took place at a senior center located in central Indiana, where of arteries (p<0. In addi- regular activities were provided for low-income seniors from near- tion, voluntary running signifcantly decreased amyloid β accumu- by neighborhoods. An exercise program was provided on voluntary running also decreased the dendrites loss (p<0. Conclusion: This important included in the exercise program were line dancing, chair aerobics, fnding suggested that voluntary running accelerated the clearance yoga, etc. Quantitative data was ana- accumulation and infammation, protected dendrites survival and lyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Quality of life was synaptic function, eventually improved spatial memory cognition. Social participation was measured using the So- cial Profle (Donohue, 2013) at the end of each session as repeated 170 measures. Three main themes emerged that supported participants’ 1 1 quality of life were well-being, peace of mind, and relationships. Chen Conclusion: Community-based program has positive effects on so- The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Department of cial participation in older adults. In achieving good quality of life Rehabilitation, Shijiazhuang, Hebei, China while aging, it is important to maintain relationships with family and friends, and fnding time to support and help others in need. Results: The expression of Bcl-2 in the perihema- of studies have analyzed the infuence of lower limb amputation on tomal area in 1. A total of 160 patients of trans-tibial amputation were fol- with control group and 1. The aim of present study was to clarify the basis of answers to a fve point questionnaire which included risk factors for dysphagia in patients with acute exacerbation of their social, economic and psychological aspects. Material and Methods: This study used a cross-sectional de- were correlated to assess the infuence of functional recovery on the sign. Clinical inter- of them felt increased level of depression and anxiety after amputa- views, blood chemistry analysis, electrocardiography, echocardiog- tion. According to previous studies, patients were divided into a also social, economical and psychological factors. An amputee with better performed, and then variables with signifcant difference between ambulation level fares better economically, psychologically and so- groups were entered into a multivariate model.
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