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The Strategy is informed by current evidence on drug use and effective strategies buy exelon 1.5 mg lowest price. However effective 6mg exelon, priorities and responses are expected to change during the term of the Strategy. The Strategy provides a framework for flexible, proactive and nationally coordinated responses and is designed to adapt to changes based on the principles of harm minimisation. Implementation of the approach presented in this Strategy, including funding, legislation and programs, is the responsibility of relevant agencies in Commonwealth, State and Territory 6 Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy (2004) The National Drug Strategy-Australia’s Integrated Framework 2004-2009. The mix of actions adopted in individual jurisdictions and the details of their implementation may vary to reflect local circumstances and priorities. Local innovation within the harm minimisation approach, responding to needs and emerging issues, leads to better outcomes. This approach considers the health, social and economic consequences of drug use on both the individual and the community as a whole and is based on the following considerations: • Use of drugs, whether licit or illicit, is a part of society, • Drug use occurs across a continuum, from occasional use to dependent use, • A range of harms are associated with different types and patterns of drug use, • Response to these harms can use a range of methodologies. This approach reduces total harm due to alcohol, tobacco and other drug use through coordinated, multi-agency responses that address the three pillars of harm minimisation. Strategies to minimise the harm from alcohol, tobacco and other drug use should be coordinated and balanced across the three pillars. It also includes supporting people to recover from dependence and enhance their integration with the community. Supply Reduction Supply reduction includes strategies and actions that prevent, stop, disrupt or otherwise reduce the production and supply of illicit drugs; and control, manage or regulate the supply of alcohol, tobacco and other licit drugs. Harm Reduction Harm reduction strategies aim to reduce the negative outcomes from alcohol, tobacco and other drug use when it is occurring by encouraging safer behaviours, creating supportive environments and reducing preventable risk factors. These principles underpin effective responses to alcohol, tobacco and other drug use. Partnerships The core partnership between health and law enforcement is central to the harm minimisation approach. However, a wide range of effective partnerships are critical components of the harm minimisation approach. This includes partnerships between both government and non-government agencies in areas such as education, treatment and services, justice, child protection, social welfare, fiscal policy, trade, consumer policy, road safety and employment. It also includes partnerships with researchers and communities, affected communities such as drug user organisations, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities, and other priority populations. Coordination and collaboration Coordination and collaboration at the international level, nationally and within jurisdictions leads to improved outcomes, innovative responses and better use of resources. The Strategy coordinates the national response to alcohol, tobacco and other drugs by establishing the harm minimisation approach. The Strategy also facilitates collaboration by describing the wide variety of responsibilities within the harm minimisation approach and their interdependence, as well as through the Strategy’s governance structure. Evidence informed responses Funding, resource allocation and implementation of strategies should be informed by evidence where possible. However, evidence is constantly improving and priorities and effective responses will develop during the term of the Strategy. Innovation and leadership in the development of new approaches is encouraged within the framework of harm minimisation. Supporting research and building and sharing evidence is a key mechanism that allows a national approach to leverage better outcomes from local implementation. Where evidence is not available or limited, effective policy should still be implemented, especially when this will expand the knowledge base. National direction, jurisdictional implementation The Strategy describes a nationally agreed harm minimisation approach to reducing the harm from alcohol, tobacco and other drug use. However, funding and implementation occurs at all levels of government and the Commonwealth Government, state and territory governments and local governments are all responsible for regulation and the funding of programs that reduce the harms of drug use. Jurisdictional implementation allows for governments to take action relevant to their jurisdiction within the national harm minimisation approach. Strategies should reflect local circumstances and address emerging issues and drug types. Coordination and collaboration supports jurisdictions to develop better responses and innovations within the national approach that can inform and benefit all jurisdictions by sharing practices and learning. National Drug Strategy 2016-2025 7 Demand reduction Prevent uptake & delay first use. Harm minimisation Safe, healthy and resilient Australian communities through minimising alcohol, tobacco and other drug- related health, social and economic harms among individuals, families and communities. The Strategy describes an overall national commitment to the harm minimisation approach. In the implementation of harm minimisation, jurisdictions will have programs, initiatives and priorities reflecting local circumstances and areas of responsibility. They have been identified through consultation, by incorporating available data and evidence, and by reviewing existing projects under the National Drug Strategy. The Priorities for the National Drug Strategy are: • Increase participatory processes that facilitate community engagement and involvement in identifying and responding to the key national alcohol, tobacco and other drug issues. There are many reasons that people use drugs, including socialising, experimentation, coping with stress or difficult life situations, peer pressure, increasing pleasure or to intensify feelings and behaviours.
Wild and Asia buy 6 mg exelon amex, most infections are sub-clinical but the mammals and disease can still cause serious morbidity and mortality buy exelon 1.5mg low cost. Leptospirosis Cattle, sheep, Mortality can be high in calves and young or weak goats, pigs. Brucellosis Cattle, swine, High mortality of unborn animals, the disease can be goats, sheep, other debilitating and causes loss of productivity and welfare ruminants. Duck virus enteritis Ducks and geese In susceptible domestic waterfowl flocks, high percentage mortality and reduced egg production can occur. Epizootic ulcerative Wide range of wild High losses to fish farmers through mortalities, reduced syndrome and farmed fish productivity and market rejection due to presence of lesions affecting consumer confidence. Lead poisoning Mammals, poultry Lead is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in including livestock, particularly for sheep and cattle. Salmonellosis Most commonly in Many infected animals will not show clinical disease. In poultry and pigs mammals, clinical disease is most common in very young, pregnant or lactating animals, and often occurs after a stressful event. Outbreaks in young ruminants, pigs and poultry can result in a high morbidity rate. African animal Cattle, swine, Trypanosomiasis threatens 50 million cattle in Africa trypanosomiasis camels, goats and and can reduce livestock holdings by 10-50%. The mortality rate can reach 50- 100% within months of exposure, particularly if the animal is exposed to poor nutrition and other stresses. Bovine tuberculosis Cattle plus a wide Significant importance to the cattle industry through range of wild and loss of production, control measures and trade domestic restrictions. The majority (60%) of emerging infectious diseases in humans are caused by zoonotic pathogens. Livestock production systems provide opportunities for zoonotic disease transmission and increased human population density living with domestic livestock and pet animals is linked to a rise in the number of zoonotic infections in humans. Additionally, wildlife plays a key role by providing a ‘zoonotic pool’ from which new diseases may emerge. Human encroachment into wildlife habitats and wildlife utilising urban settings, as well as trade and use of wildlife (e. As well as the direct impact of animal diseases on humans, there are numerous indirect impacts mainly caused by the reduced production of livestock in terms of both food security and quality and reduced income linked to production losses and trade restrictions. An increasing range of interfaces between humans and animals allows zoonotic diseases to emerge. There are economic losses to livestock production as disease causes direct mortality and morbidity and reduces production efficiency, e. Production efficiency is also affected if a disease forces farmers to use resources sub-optimally, e. Disease also causes losses of revenue from restrictions on animal movement and trade, costs of control measures (including veterinary treatments) which can be prohibitive, negative impacts on agriculture and aquaculture markets, socio-economic influence on livelihoods, public health concerns especially in the instance of zoonotic disease, and even loss of income to tourism initiatives, e. However, the costs of disease control operations following an outbreak can be even more so: as a general principle, prevention costs provide a sound investment. Although complicated, the economics of disease management need to be seen in the broader context of ecosystem health [►Section 2. Viewing disease management from this perspective which includes ‘all’ the costs of loss of ecosystem function and benefits can help determine appropriate disease control strategies. Although disease may affect income in one sector there may be other compensations. As an example, losses and theoretical losses to livestock production in endemic African animal trypanosome areas allow areas to be left for wildlife from which other direct revenue can flow, e. A cost-benefit analysis, or decision tree, for example, may be useful when comparing the relative merits of different strategies. Diseases of organisms other than animals, such as plant diseases and diseases primarily of humans, such as malaria and dengue fever, are not included. The practicalities and resources available may vary but the principles of disease management remain the same. Written for wetland managers, this Manual aims to bring together what is currently known about animal diseases affecting wetlands and what options are available for managing them. Following an introduction to the issue of diseases in wetlands, we present the general principles of disease and its management in wetlands. We then provide descriptions of a selection of management practices for preventing and controlling disease outbreaks. Thereafter, factsheets present 2 descriptions of a selection of priority diseases affecting wetlands and information to assist in their management. Throughout the Manual key messages for wetland managers and policy makers are highlighted. As seen in Table 1-2, the drivers for disease emergence in wetlands are closely associated with human activity and disease prevention in these habitats lies primarily with land users and managers, together with decision makers. Use of this Manual should provide managers with enhanced understanding that will help assist better informed decision making with respect to preventing and controlling disease in wetlands.
Reduce harmful use Many of the harms arising from the use of alcohol cheap exelon 4.5 mg free shipping, tobacco and other drugs are associated with the volume consumed 3mg exelon for sale. Demand reduction strategies that reduce harmful consumption levels over time or the amount taken on one occasion, can reduce harm. Support people to recover from dependence and reintegrate with the community Supporting people to recover from dependence and reintegrate with the community, can result in people ceasing or reducing their drug use. This can reduce levels of demand and harms from substance misuse in the community. Treatment services are highly effective in helping individuals reduce their drug use, its associated health and social harms, and recover from drug dependence. They help individuals to address their immediate physical and mental health needs and, through psychosocial interventions, assist in building resilience, problem solving and coping skills for longer term health outcomes. Specialist alcohol and other drug services can refer to, or collaborate with other government or non-government agencies to facilitate access to services that will address broader social, health and economic needs that are barriers to recovery from dependence. Approaches that address social determinants of health can also enhance community health and wellbeing and reduce health inequalities among specific population groups. This includes social services and community groups collaborating to improve access to housing, education, vocational and employment support, as well as developing and enhancing family and social connectedness. Strategies that affect demand include: • Price mechanisms • Building community knowledge and changing acceptability of use • Restrictions on promotion • Treatment services and brief intervention • Targeted approaches to high prevalence population groups, including Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people. The relative effectiveness of each strategy varies for alcohol, tobacco and other drugs, due to differences in legality and regulation, prevalence of demand and usage behaviours. A comprehensive demand reduction approach National Drug Strategy 2016-2025 13 should use a mix of these strategies and be tailored to meet the varied needs of individuals, families, communities, and specific population groups. Examples of evidence informed demand reduction approaches are described in the table below. This list is not exhaustive, but rather highlights or provides a guide to the key approaches to be considered. An effective demand reduction strategy must reflect evidence as it becomes available and address emerging issues, drug types and local circumstances. Controlling who can use, as well as when, where and how use occurs reduces the harm experienced by both the consumer and the broader community. Where strategies have been effectively implemented limiting access to drugs through prohibitive pricing and/or by decreased availability reductions in harm have been realised. Although prices have returned to previous levels and are stable, it has resulted in reduced use with prevalence rates in 2013 of only 0. There has also been a corresponding decrease in fatal overdose 24 25 incidents from 737 in 1998 to 208 in 2011. In addition, there were significant reductions in crime, 26 particularly robbery and general theft, as evidenced by New South Wales crime statistics. Supply reduction strategies in relation to illicit drugs seek to remove drugs, their suppliers and manufacturers from the market. They do this through the detection and seizure of drugs and the disruption and dismantling of criminal enterprises by taking legal action against individuals, confiscating assets and introducing further regulation to restrict activity and practices. Where alcohol, tobacco, pharmaceuticals and other legitimate products, chemicals or equipment that can be diverted for the purpose of manufacturing illicit drugs is concerned, supply strategies involve working with industry and informing communities to prevent misuse; enforcing existing regulations; and introducing new restrictions or conditions where required. While law enforcement agencies have primary carriage of supply reduction activities in the national response to drug misuse supply reduction is not the sole responsibility of law enforcement. Effective supply reduction involves a wide range of government agencies including local councils, State and Territory Governments, the Commonwealth and foreign governments and transnational organisations. Industry too, is and has always been, critical to supply reduction efforts concerning licit substances, for example, in ensuring responsible service of alcohol. They are, however, becoming an increasingly important partner for addressing the growth in the misuse of pharmaceuticals and the diversion of chemicals and equipment to the black market and illicit drug cultivation and manufacture. Local communities can contribute to supply reduction efforts through participation in and support of community action plans and dry community declarations, input into liquor licensing applications, and the reporting of suspicious activity around the supply and manufacture of drugs. Parents and families also have a role to play, not only in shaping the culture of young people and their acceptance of alcohol and other drug misuse, but in reducing supply. Strategies like secondary supply legislation and public information activities that target the adverse consequences of substance misuse are aimed at reducing the availability of alcohol and tobacco to young people, particularly in the home. In 1984, it would take a 20- cigarette-per-day smoker approximately one hour to earn sufficient money to buy a week’s supply of 27 tobacco. In 28 2011, young smokers were less likely to purchase their own cigarettes than in previous years. The proportion of 12 and 15 year old smokers buying their own cigarettes decreased from over 50% in 29 1987 to 10. In contrast, alcohol has become more affordable and available in Australia with the number of liquor 30 licences increasing around the country over the last 15 years. Increases in the density of liquor 31,32,33 outlets have been shown to elevate rates of violence and other alcohol-related harms. Compared to other commodities, alcohol in Australia has become increasingly affordable over the 34 35 last decade. The relative price of wine, in particular, has substantially reduced in recent years.
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