By E. Yasmin. The College of Santa Fe.
Parry V (2003) The art of branding a within industry cheap strattera 10 mg overnight delivery, just as other parts of to promote a renovation in the way condition discount 40 mg strattera overnight delivery. Coe J (2003) Healthcare: The lifestyle drugs outlook to 2008, unlocking new value in well- disease mongering from within. Lexchin J (2006) Bigger and better: How Pﬁzer better understand the phenomenon of assembled, free of commercial conﬂicts redeﬁned erectile dysfunction. Australia, for example, it has been who would ultimately generate more Available: http:⁄⁄haiweb. Health Action International (1999) The ties subsidy for inappropriate prescriptions Until a rigorous research agenda is that bind: Weighing the risks and beneﬁts of several high-proﬁle drugs to people initiated, and the social renovations of pharmaceutical industry sponsorship. Health and Social Campaigners News International (2004 April) Health campaigners, managing Australia’s publicly funded the beneﬁts of corporate-sponsored fundraising and the growth of industry national formulary, the Pharmaceutical disease-awareness campaigns, will involvement. Moynihan R, Heath I, Henry D (2002) Selling The inﬂuence of the pharmaceutical industry: sickness: The pharmaceutical industry and Fourth report of session 2004–2005. Thus, we now see strategies used by Pﬁzer, the maker treatments widely advertised for male of Viagra, to ensure that the drug was pattern baldness and shyness. Deviating Funding: The author received no speciﬁc funding for seen as legitimate therapy for almost even further, drug therapy is moving this article. Pﬁzer took steps to make sure out of treating diseases to providing that Viagra was not relegated to a niche Competing Interests: The author has declared that enhancements to what had hitherto no competing interests exist. This due to organic causes, such as diabetes Citation: Lexchin J (2006) Bigger and better: How evolution in the use of medications has or prostate surgery. This is an although a systematic review of the open-access article distributed under the terms deviation from normality fair game for evidence found that the drug probably of the Creative Commons Attribution License, treatment? What about people who which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and only results in successful intercourse reproduction in any medium, provided the original have nothing medically wrong with 50%–60% of the time . In order to Management, York University, Toronto, Ontario, grow the market, Pﬁzer had to make Canada; the Emergency Department, University Viagra the treatment of choice for a Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; and the The Essay section contains opinion pieces on topics Department of Family and Community Medicine, much wider population of men. Only 20% On its Web site, Pﬁzer states that “in Survey indicates that among men 50–59 of Japanese men 40 to 79 years of age fact, more than half of all men over 40 years old, 18% complained of trouble reported more than little worry and have difﬁculties getting or maintaining achieving or maintaining an erection concern about sexual functioning, an erection” (http:⁄⁄www. The Web site the Netherlands found that only 1% of male sexual function and its impact on does not give a reference to support men 50–65 years of age had a complete health-related quality of life may differ this statement. One possible source inability to achieve an erection, and it among cultures and ethnic groups with of support for this statement is the was only in men aged 70–78 years that differing values . Projection of these results to psychological factors, including improved erections (http:⁄⁄www. In most First, there were actually two different symptoms could also be an effect studies on Viagra, a 50%–60% rate of groups of men in this study. While not successful compared with 50%–60% for plus an additional question to self-rate to deny that there is an association patients taking Viagra 25–100 mg). However, drug therapy similar, and there are reasons to think may not always be the most appropriate that differences may exist between the treatment option. Pﬁzer Hired 39-Year-Old Baseball Even if the scores from one group Player Rafael Palmeiro as a Spokesman for be less important than counseling can be transferred to the other, the Viagra or help in ﬁnding a new job. Here is a sample given our advertising agency instructions If we accept this view, then are we not of the questions and answers on the to speak to this young population? Between 1998 and 2002 occasional erection problems is one versus 36% of men taking a sugar pill” the group showing the largest increase example of how commercial pressures (http:⁄⁄www. Early to-consumer magazine ads, such as one of the Expanding Market for on, Kaiser Permanente refused to featuring a virile looking man around Lifestyle Drugs cover Viagra for its 9 million members 40 saying, “A lot of guys have occasional Drug companies have identiﬁed because of costs expected to be in erection problems. Drug companies, driven by proﬁt, Another goal of Pﬁzer’s campaign was go where the money is. If we believe the prophets advertising campaign to match the Conclusion of technology, soon there will be drugs lifestyle message on its Web site. Here we come back to the is effective and safe for people Ranger baseball player as a spokesman enhancement debate. Pﬁzer teamed up with limitations with grace, or is it legitimate treatment, but it also can be used Sports Illustrated magazine to create the to seek technological solutions for by a much wider population. Pﬁzer’s consumer advertising to get its message for the restricted opportunity and well-ﬁnanced campaign was aimed at about Viagra to men [8–10]. Besides loss of function caused by disease raising awareness of the problem of the large promotion budget, Pﬁzer has and disability” . Opposing this consumer product, Pﬁzer then turned Pﬁzer denies that it is targeting is an expansionist deﬁnition, such as its attention to payers in order to reap younger men or that it is positioning the one offered by the World Health the beneﬁts of the expanded market. Mariann Organization, where health is “a state Ultimately, there must be a debate Caprino, a spokeswoman for the of complete physical, mental and about how limited resources for health company, is quoted in the New York social well-being” (http:⁄⁄www. Accessed 2 “worthy” enough to have their treatment Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, March 2006. And do they get an unlimited sex hormone-binding globulin in middle-aged Meeting (Pennsylvania). Accessed 1 March treatments grows, the scenario dysfunction in the United States: Prevalence 2006. Deer B (1998 September 6) Viagra: Sex drugs surrounding Viagra will become all too 5.
This [disease] happens to women because corrupt semen abounds in them excessively strattera 10mg for sale, and it is converted into a poisonous nature order strattera 10 mg overnight delivery. It regularly comes upon virgins, too, when they reach the age of marriage and are not able to use men and when the semen abounds in them a lot, which Nature wishes to draw out by means of the male. From this superabundant and corrupt semen, a certain cold fumosity is released and it ascends to the organs which are called by the common people the ‘‘collaterals,’’ because they are near to the heart and lungs and the rest of the principal instruments of the voice. This kind of illness is accustomed to originate principally from a defect of the menses. And if both the menses are lacking and the semen is superabundant, the illness will be so much the more menacing and wide-ranging, especially when it seizes the higher organs. On the other hand, their vaginas ought to be anointed with those oils and hot ointments which have a sweet odor, such as iris oil, chamomile oil, musk oil, and nard oil. The women ought also to be anointed inside and out with oils and ointments of good smell. Likewise, in the evening let her take diaciminum21 with the juice of wild celery or with a syrup of calamint or cat- mint, or with juice of henbane or juice of catmint. Or take one dram each of castoreum, white pepper, costmary, mint, and wild celery, let them be ground, and let them be mixed with white or sweet wine. Precepit etiam priapum uulpisa uel capreolib accipi et ﬁeri inde puluerem et per pessarium inici. Refert etiam quod multum ualet ad idemb radix leuistici cocta et trita cum anxungia et ligata super umbilicum. Huiusmodi autem remollicio et infrigidatio contingit ex frigido aere per ori- ﬁcia matricis subintrante, et quandoque si detectac directe se opposueritd aeri frigido, uel supere lapidem frigidum sederit, et quandoquef ex balneo aque fri- gide, quia per hoc debilitaturet exit de loco suo, et quandoque conatu pariendi. Inferiusa fumige- tur rebus fetentibus, utb est pannus lineus combustus, et similia. Postea accipe rutam, castoreum, arthimesiam ana, et in uino decoquanturd usque ad consumptionem duarum parcium, deinde da in potu. Book on the Conditions of Women prescribed that the penis of a fox or roebuck be taken and made into a powder and inserted by means of a pessary. He also says that what works very well for the same [condition] is root of lovage cooked and ground with animal grease and tied upon the navel. On Descent of the Womb  If it happens that after birth the womb descends too far down from its place, let oats, having ﬁrst been moistened and put into a sack, be heated and applied. And this happens on account of a weakening of the ligaments and an abundance of cold humors inside. A weakening and chilling of this kind happens from cold air entering in from below through the oriﬁces22 of the womb, and sometimes if uncovered she has exposed herself directly to cold air, or sat upon a cold stone. And sometimes [this happens] from a bath of cold water, for by this [the womb] is weakened and goes out from its place, and sometimes [it happens] from the eﬀort of giving birth. If it descends and does not come all the way out, aromatic substances ought to be applied to the nose, such as balsam, musk, ambergris, spikenard, storax, and similar things. Let her be fumigated from below with fetid substances, such as burnt linen cloth, and similar things. Then take rue, castoreum, and mugwort, and let them be cooked in wine until two parts have been consumed, then give it in a potion. Afterward, let the woman enter water in which there have been cooked pomegranate, roses, rind of pomegranate, oak apples, sumac, myrtleberries, the fruit and leaves and bark of oak, and juniper nuts, and lentils. For Dioscorides prescribes that there be made for them a steambath of box- Liber de Sinthomatibus Mulierum cepit eis stupham facereb de buxoc posito in olla super carbones uiuos, et mu- lier sedeat desuper cooperta et fumum recipiatd interius. De fructibus comedata coctana, mespila, sorba, citonia,b malac acria,28 et si- milia. Cuius sig- num estb quod mulier sentit dolorem in sinistro latere, menstruorum retentio- nem, distorsionemc [vb] membrorum, diﬃcultatem mingendi, torsiones et rugitus uentris. Accipe agaricum tritum, semen plantaginis, semen satureie,a et pulueriza et da in potu cum uino uel cum melle cocto. Deinde accipe fenugrecum, semen lini, et decoque in aqua ad lentum ignem cum predictis usque ad plenam decoctionem, et inicia- tur per pessarium. Book on the Conditions of Women wood placed in a pot upon live coals, and let the woman, covered on top, sit on it, and let her receive the smoke inside [her vagina]. For fruit, let her eat quinces, medlars, service-berries, quinces,23 bitter apples, and similar things. On Movement of the Womb from Its Place  Sometimes the womb is moved from its place, but it is not lifted upward toward the organs of respiration, nor does it extrude outside through the ori- ﬁce [of the vagina], nor does it descend. The sign of this is that the woman experiences pain in the left side, retention of the menses, contortion of the limbs, diﬃculty of urinating, [and] twisting and rumbling of the belly. Take wild celery and fenugreek, and having ground them with wine, give them to drink. Then take fenugreek and linseed, and cook them in water on a slow ﬁre with the above-mentioned substances until they are fully cooked.
Septicaemia: Blood poisoning trusted strattera 18mg, invasion of the bloodstream by virulent microorganisms from a focus of infection cheap 10 mg strattera amex. Serovar: A group of closely related microorganisms distinguished by a characteristic set of antigens. Slurries: Thin, watery mixtures of fine, insoluble material such as clay, cement, soil, or faeces. Spatial variation: Differences in a landscape usually associated with populations. Spillover: The transmission of infectious agents from reservoir animal populations (often domesticated species) to sympatric wildlife. Sporocyst: The larva of a trematode worm that produces redia larvae by asexual reproduction. Stressors: A chemical or biological agent, an environmental condition, an external stimulus or an event that causes stress to an organism (e. Subclinical: A mild infection or early stage infection with no detectable symptoms. Syndromes: The result of the combination of clinical signs or symptoms that collectively indicate or characterise a disease. Trypanotolerant: Trypanotolerant and trypanotolerance describe the condition of being able to resist trypanosomiasis e. Vertical transmission: Transmission of an infectious agent between different generations within a population i. Virulence: The severity to which a microorganism can cause disease, similar to pathogenicity. Waterbird: Species of birds ecologically dependent on wetlands for at least part of their annual cycle. Zoonosis: Disease or infection which can be naturally transmitted from vertebrate animals to humans (plural: zoonoses; adjective: zoonotic). Zoosanitary: Relating to the health of animals and the prevention of spreading animal diseases through cleaning and containment practices. The fungus Affects most species of amphibian and is a Amphibian Batrachochytriu All continents except Antarctica. An acute infectious disease, can Anthrax Bacillus Europe, parts of Africa, Australia, Asia N anthracis affect almost all species of mammals, and North and South America. Also occurs in Most commonly affects ducks, geese, swans, Avian cholera Pasteurella South America, Africa, Asia, Europe shore birds, coots, gulls and crows. The bacterium Most commonly reported in wild waterbirds, Avian Mycobacterium Worldwide. Widespread in Africa, Bovine bovis; responsible for elevated mortality and Mycobacterium parts of Asia and some Middle Eastern N tuberculosis bovis morbidity in wild mammals in some protected countries. High risk areas include: Particularly affects cattle, swine, goats, sheep Bacteria of the the Mediterranean Basin, South and Brucellosis but also wild bison, elk, deer, other ruminants. N genus Brucella Central America, Eastern Europe, Asia, Infection can cause reproductive losses. Bacteria in the Campylo- Infection in wild birds and mammals often genus Worldwide. Oomycete All species of freshwater crayfish are Widespread in Europe and North Crayfish plague Aphanomyces considered susceptible to infection, European N astaci America. Duck virus Reported in North America, Asia and Can cause high seasonal mortality in ducks, Herpesvirus enteritis several countries in Europe. Affects 25 Epizootic Affects wild and farmed, fresh- and brackish- Aphanomyces countries in four continents: southern ulcerative water fish. Direct release of raw sewage is a frequent Strains of the Escherichia coli source. Occur in both saltwater and freshwater Harmful algal Toxic species of environments, particularly where there are Worldwide. Occurs globally and in any wetland Particularly affects waterbirds, birds of prey, Lead poisoning Toxic lead where lead is deposited. Most common in Causes infections in many terrestrial and Leptospirosis the genus temperate or tropical climates with marine mammals. Can affect wild populations of oysters and also Oyster diseases Various Worldwide. Ranavirus Reported in the Americas, Asia, Pacific Significant effects on amphibians (including Ranaviruses N infection and Europe. A vector-borne disease, commonly Endemic in tropical regions of Eastern Rift Valley fever transmitted by mosquitoes. Cases also N Phlebovirus terrestrial mammals; predominantly sheep, reported in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. Schistosomes Most commonly found in Asia, Africa Affects many species of wild animals and Schistosomiasis (trematode and South America in areas where the wildfowl, however, humans and livestock are ― worms) water contains freshwater snails.
It is associated with a good is treated with further chemotherapy or radiotherapy strattera 40 mg with visa. There is a higher risk of contralateral which have a variegated appearance due to foci of cancer buy strattera 10 mg line, but this usually responds well to treatment. Microscopically, they ap- pear pleomorphic, with many mitoses and primitive epithelial cells forming irregular sheets, tubules, alve- Teratoma (non-seminomatous germ oliandpapillarystructures. Blood-borne prognostic markers are good, down to 48% for poor metastases are a common early feature. Yolk sac elements are often found with other Leydig cell tumour germ cell tumour elements, when they form solid and papillary lesions which consists of micro-sheets and Deﬁnition cordsofcells with vacuolated cytoplasm. These are Thisisanon-germcelltumourofthestromaofthetestis, highly malignant and confer a worse prognosis. Complications Sex Spread occurs via the blood stream to lung, liver, brain Male only andbone. If there is residual tu- mour, with normal markers, surgical resection is in- Clinical features dicated to remove tumour bulk, which often is only Local features as for testicular tumours, but they more mature teratoma. If tumour markers do not respond, commonly present with secondary effects such as gy- second choice chemotherapy is tried. Prognosis Macroscopy/microscopy Apart from higher stage disease, the worst prognosis is in Circumscribed, yellow-brown, uniform tumour which those with very high tumour markers and histologically ranges from 1 cm to a bulky mass. Microscopically, the in those which are undifferentiated, vascular invasive or cellsresemble normal Leydig cells – sheets or nests of if containing trophoblastic or yolk sac elements. Even large, polygonal cells with round nuclei and abundant for metastatic disease modern treatment has improved granular eosinophilic cytoplasm. Vacuolated cytoplasm, the 5-year survival rates signiﬁcantly to over 90% if all or pinkish crystals of Reinke may be seen. The Sertoli cells form the testicular tubules and when stimulated by follicle-stimulating hormone from pu- berty, they are capable of supporting the maturation of Sertoli-cell tumour spermatogonia. Normally they do not secrete sex hor- Deﬁnition mones, but tumour cells may secrete low levels of andro- This is a non-germ-cell tumour of the testis, derived gens or oestrogens, but these are very rarely high enough from the Sertoli cells which are part of the seminiferous to cause systemic effects. Macroscopy/microscopy Homogeneous grey-white to yellow masses of variable Age size, which are well circumscribed. Certain histological features Sex predict metastasis; for example multiple mitoses and Male only large cell calcifying cell type. Symptoms Seizures: Features that suggest a seizure include wit- nessed convulsions (one or both sides of the body), post- Headache ictal (post-seizure) confusion, drowsiness and headache. Most headaches of the tongue and urinary incontinence (due to re- do not have a serious cause. The history is the most laxation of the bladder sphincters) and other injuries important diagnostic tool. If there As with most types of pain, speciﬁc features that must are warning signs prior to the seizure, e. Auras are un- pain is sometimes generalised, but if focal may be de- usual in other types of ﬁts and faints except for in mi- scribed as frontal, occipital, temporal and either unilat- graine which does not result in loss of consciousness or eral or bilateral. Drugs, including recreational drugs and substances Absence seizures (previously called petit mal) are such as alcohol, nicotine and caffeine, can lead to found only in children – the individual appears brieﬂy headaches, either directly or during withdrawal. Sudden onset r Notall seizures are due to epilepsy – intracranial le- Severe pain r sions such as tumours, stroke and haemorrhage, or ex- Associated neurological abnormalities r tracranial causes such as drugs and alcohol withdrawal Impaired consciousness r are important underlying causes. Seizures r Metabolic causes that must be excluded in any sus- Previous head injury or history of fall or trauma r pected ﬁt or faint include hypoglycaemia and hypocal- Signsofsystemic illness caemia. The headache may subside or persist, but is typically at its worst at the dramatic onset. Meningitis A generalised headache classically associated with fever and neck stiffness. Care is required to exclude temporal arteritis in patients over the age of 50 years if a short history. When due to an underlying tumour, the time course may be short, or over months to years depending on the site and any associated complications such as haemorrhage or hydrocephalus. Migraine Classical migraine has an aura (a prodrome of symptoms such as ﬂashing lights) lasting up to an hour preceding the onset of pain, frequently accompanied by nausea and vomiting. The headache is often localised, becoming generalised and persists for several hours. Cervical spondylosis Pain in the suboccipital region associated with head posture and local tenderness relieved by neck support. Temporal arteritis Severe headache and scalp tenderness over the inﬂamed, palpably thickened superﬁcial temporal arteries with progressive loss of the pulse.
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