By D. Jack. Geneva College.
His panic attacks consist of sweating generic diflucan 50 mg online, rapid heartbeat cheap diflucan 150mg without prescription, and a horrible tightness in his chest. He shops for groceries late at night when few people are around, and he makes all other pur- chases on the Internet so that he can avoid shopping malls. He feels worst in places in which he thinks he may have trouble escaping, such as crowded movie theaters. If your anxiety includes signiﬁcant physical symptoms such as difﬁculty breathing and changes in heart rate, you should consult with your medical doctor prior to treating the anxiety on your own or even with a counselor or therapist. Using the infor- mation you’ve recorded and the samples in the previous section as a guide, you can build your Staircase of Fear. Continue ﬁlling in Worksheet 9-11, writing activities in the order of the degree of fear they carry. Try to make your steps reasonably evenly spaced in terms of the amount of fear involved. Thus, if you rate one step a 25, your next step ideally should have a ranking of 30 to 35. For example, if your fear involves getting ill, we don’t particularly advise you expose yourself to deadly viruses. Climbing Your Staircase After you develop your ﬁrst Staircase of Fear (see the previous section), it’s time to face your fear directly. It will be hard, but if you take care to focus on each step as it comes and climb slowly, you’re likely to succeed. Remember, if you ﬁnd the process too difﬁcult, consult a mental health professional. After constructing his Staircase of Fear, Jason’s ready for the ﬁrst step in confronting his fear, which requires him to talk to a female sales clerk. After he feels a little calmer, Jason approaches the clerk and asks for directions to customer service. Because he feels pretty anxious during this brief conversation, he knows he needs to repeat this step a number of times before he’s ready to move on to the next step in his staircase. Jason spends much of the afternoon in the mall going from one clerk to another in various stores. By the end of the day, he chats easily with a clerk and feels only a fraction of his pre- vious anxiety. Jason knows he needs to continue with this step, but he’s also ready to take on the next one. Jason tracks his progress in the Climb to the Top Exercise shown in Worksheet 9-12. After each attempt at a fearful activity, he records how much anxiety he experiences and jots down his thoughts. He repeats the activity until his anxiety decreases by at least 50 percent, and then he moves to the next step. Worksheet 9-12 Jason’s Climb to the Top Exercise Activity Anxiety Ratings: 0 (no fear) to 100 (terriﬁed) Talking to a female store clerk 30, 30, 25, 20, 20, 15, 10, 10: This was tougher than I thought it would be at ﬁrst, but it got to be kind of fun. Chapter 9: Facing Feelings: Avoiding Avoidance 143 Activity Anxiety Ratings: 0 (no fear) to 100 (terriﬁed) Volunteering to be on the social 65, 70, 70, 60, 30, 30: This started out committee at work and going a lot harder than I thought it would be, to the meetings but it didn’t take too long to come down. Having a conversation with a 70, 70, 65, 65, 55, 70, 55, 40, 65, 35, woman I don’t know 35: This is still pretty hard for me. I know I need to keep on practicing, but I think I can handle the next step in the meantime. As you can see, the ﬁrst time Jason carried out an activity, his anxiety wasn’t always at the level he had expected on his Staircase of Fear (see Worksheet 9-5). As he repeated the activ- ities, his anxiety went up and down but generally tended downward. Before you begin exposure, or what we call climbing the staircase, it’s a good idea to start out in a reasonably relaxed state. Practicing this breathing technique gives you a quick way of managing anxiety if it crops up and climbs excessively. In the left-hand column of Worksheet 9-13, write down the activities from your Staircase of Fear (see Worksheet 9-11) in order of difﬁculty, with the easiest, least fearful items listed ﬁrst. If the item involves an imaginary scene, ﬁnd a comfortable place to sit and relax. Lie back, close your eyes, and picture the feared item as though it were occurring. Stay with the image as long as it takes for your fear to diminish at least 50 percent. In the right-hand column of Worksheet 9-13, rate how anxious the activity or imagery makes you feel on a scale of 0 (no anxiety) to 100 (terrifying). Repeat each activity and rate each repetition until your anxiety has dropped by around 50 percent.
Which is the most appropriate nonselective Petragnani’s medium contains a higher concentration medium for recovery of mycobacteria from a (0 discount diflucan 50mg without a prescription. A The carbolfuchsin (fuchsin with phenol) stains the Mycobacteria/2 mycobacteria red and does not decolorize after the acid–alcohol is added purchase 200mg diflucan with visa. Mycobacteria stained by the Ziehl–Neelsen or any other bacterial elements will decolorize and Kinyoun methods with methylene blue are counterstained blue by the methylene blue. Bright yellow rods against a yellow background fluorochrome produces bright yellow fluorescent C. Orange-red rods against a black background mycobacteria and auramine–rhodamine causes an D. Bright blue rods against a pink background orange-red (gold) fluorescence against a dark Microbiology/Apply knowledge of fundamental background. A fluorescent microscope must be biological characteristics/Mycobacteria/1 used, but with this method the smear can be scanned with a 25× objective instead of the 100× objective, permitting more rapid identification of mycobacteria. Acid-fast staining of a smear prepared from Answers to Questions 5–9 digested sputum showed slender, slightly curved, beaded, red mycobacterial rods. Niacin and nitrate reduction the tropics), does not grow at 37°C (optimal tests were positive. What is the most probable temperature is 33°C), and is not recovered from presumptive identiﬁcation? Mycobacterium tuberculosis production of cording factor, a virulence factor for B. Which organism, associated with tuberculosis in where there is close contact between humans and cattle, causes tuberculosis in humans, especially in cattle. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex the dark or after exposure to light (photochromogen). Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium Mycobacterium scrofulaceum, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis xenopi. The other produce(s) pigmented colonies in the dark (is a three species cause cutaneous or subcutaneous scotochromogen)? All of these options temperature at 37°C Microbiology/Apply knowledge of fundamental M. Mycobacterium kansasii Microbiology/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological characteristics/Mycobacteria/2 440 Chapter 7 | Microbiology 10. Catalase activity is determined Microbiology/Select method/Reagents/Media/ semiquantitatively by measuring the height of Mycobacteria/2 the column of bubbles produced above the 12. C The hydrolysis of Tween 80 is usually positive when testing the clinically insignificant Microbiology/Apply knowledge of fundamental mycobacteria. Colonies on hot water taps and contaminated water systems Löwenstein–Jensen medium were not pigmented and is a possible source of nosocomial infection. Te most grow on artiﬁcial media at a much lower temperature likely identiﬁcation is: than M. Mycobacterium haemophilum Microbiology/Evaluate laboratory data to make identiﬁcations/Mycobacteria/3 7. It is biochemically inert, which is a Nonphotochromogen distinguishing factor for identification. A Both pathogenic and saprophytic mycobacteria identiﬁcations/Mycobacteria/3 may produce urease, and urease production is 16. Te urease test is needed to diﬀerentiate used to diﬀerentiate several mycobacteria species. A laboratory provides the following services for levels of laboratory services for mycobacteria testing. Isolation and identiﬁcation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis; preliminary identiﬁcation of other species D. Deﬁnitive identiﬁcation of all mycobacteria Microbiology/Apply knowledge of laboratory operations/Mycobacteria/2 442 Chapter 7 | Microbiology 19. Indeterminate; a new specimen should be Nitrate reduction = Neg Tween 80 hydrolysis = + requested Microbiology/Apply knowledge of standard operating A. Which nonpathogenic Mycobacterium specie is inadequately chlorinated fresh water or salt water, isolated most often from clinical specimens and is such as in swimming pools or ﬁsh aquariums. Rarely, it is antibiotics used to treat classic tuberculosis for implicated in opportunistic infections in patients with which susceptibility testing is performed by the shunts, prosthetic heart values, or hepatoperitoneal disk diﬀusion method on Middlebrook 7H10 or disease. Vancomycin, methicillin, and carbenicillin ﬁrst-line drug-resistant tuberculosis include D. How long should Mycobacterium The patient may not respond to therapy, even when tuberculosis–positive cultures be kept by the the organism is susceptible to the antibiotics in vitro; laboratory after identification and antibiotic therefore, cultures must be kept for up to 1 year in susceptibility testing have been performed? A positive smear has a Microbiology/Apply principles of special predictive value of 96% when all laboratory and procedures/Mycobacteria/2 clinical ﬁndings are considered. Individuals showing a positive puriﬁed protein evaluate cell wall lipid patterns for identiﬁcation.
Psychiatric disorders such as manic depression is elevated in more than 75% of neuroblastoma patients generic diflucan 150 mg without a prescription. Enzymatic coupling of these Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological residues form T (3 cheap 150 mg diflucan mastercard,5,3´-triiodothyronine) and T 3 4 characteristics/Tyroid/1 (3,5,3´,5´-tetraiodothyronine). Which statement regarding thyroid hormones from thyroglobulin, forming active hormones. Circulating levels of T3 and T4 are about equal the rate of coupling favors formation of T. T3 is about 10-fold more active than T4 of T are about 50 times those of T, but T is 4 3 3 C. Te rate of formation of monoiodotyrosine and approximately 10 times more active physiologically. Most of the T3 present in plasma is from its enzymatic conversion of T by T 5´-deiodinase. Which of the following statements regarding Total T4 or T3 may be abnormal in a patient with thyroid hormones is true? Both protein-bound and free T3 and T4 are For this reason, free T3 and T4 are more speciﬁc physiologically active indicators of thyroid function than are measurements B. An elevated serum total T4 and T3 is diagnostic hepatitis, morphine, and cloﬁbrate therapy. Suitable assays 4 are available that estimate free T4 and T3 and these should be used instead of total hormone assays. Select the most appropriate single screening test Answers to Questions 43–48 for thyroid disease. Which assay is used to conﬁrm diﬃcult cases of disease, the euthyroid sick syndrome. In Chemistry/Correlate clinical and laboratory data/ patients with primary hypothyroidism, there is an Tyroid/2 exaggerated response (>30 mU/L). Interferes with the measurement of serum T3 in acute and chronic illness and is used to identify Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological patients with euthyroid sick syndrome. Patients with euthyroid sick proteins syndrome usually have a low total T3 due to D. Subclinical hypothyroidism Chemistry/Correlate clinical and laboratory data/ Tyroid/3 5. After high-dose corticosteroid treatment range should be followed up with free T and thyroid 4 Chemistry/Correlate clinical and laboratory data/ peroxidase antibody levels to assess the need for Tyroid/3 thyroid treatment. In which of the following cases is qualitative Answers to Questions 1–4 analysis of the drug usually adequate? D The purpose of therapeutic drug monitoring is to low therapeutic index is likely to be toxic achieve a therapeutic blood drug level rapidly and B. To determine whether a patient is complying minimize the risk of drug toxicity caused by overdose. To adjust dose if individual diﬀerences or disease procedure performed for drugs with a narrow alter expected response therapeutic index (ratio of the concentration D. To determine whether the patient has been producing the desired eﬀect to the concentration taking amphetamines producing toxicity). Drug groups that require Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological monitoring because of high risk of toxicity include characteristics/Terapeutic drug monitoring/1 aminoglycoside antibiotics, anticonvulsants, antiarrhythmics, antiasthmatics, immunosuppressive 2. Te term pharmacokinetics refers to the: agents used for transplant rejection, and A. When testing for abuse blood level substances, the goal is usually to determine whether B. Relationship between blood concentration and approach is to compare the result to a cutoﬀ therapeutic response determined by measuring a standard containing the D. Te relationship between blood and tissue drug lowest level of drug that is considered signiﬁcant. A Pharmacokinetics is the mathematical expression of Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological the relationship between drug dose and drug blood characteristics/Terapeutic drug monitoring/1 level. Te term pharmacodynamics is an expression of quantitative measures of drug dose, absorption, the relationship between: distribution, and elimination, the blood concentration A. B Pharmacodynamics is the relationship between the physiological eﬀect drug concentration at the receptor site (tissue C. Time and serum drug concentration concentration) and the response of the tissue to that D. For example, the relationship between Chemistry/Apply knowledge of fundamental biological lidocaine concentration in the heart muscle and the characteristics/Terapeutic drug monitoring/1 duration of the action potential of Purkinje ﬁbers. Testing drugs with cell cultures to determine the genes such as those that code for the cytochrome minimum toxic dosage P450 enzymes involved in the metabolism of many C. Genetic variations of one such enzyme may known to aﬀect drug metabolism account for individual pharmacokinetic diﬀerences D. Comparison of dose-response curves between and can be used to predict the eﬃcacy of the drug. Select the ﬁve pharmacological parameters that Answers to Questions 5–8 determine serum drug concentration.
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